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ccTLD Constituency of the DNSO
Best Practice Guidelines for ccTLD Managers
APRICOT is a forum that facilitates knowledge sharing among Internet
builders in the Asia Pacific region, with peers and leaders from the
Internet community worldwide.
APRICOT was first held in 1996, and is now the major annual Internet
operations conference of this region. It is also the only such
conference which operates on a non-profit basis for the benefit of
Internet development in the Asia Pacific.
The APRICOT Fellowship Programme supports attendance at APRICOT by key
participants from developing countries, who may otherwise not be able to
attend. It provides part funding and free registration for selected
applicants, who are encouraged to participate fully in APRICOT
workshops, tutorials and conference sessions.
This brochure provides details of the programme for APRICOT 2002,
including application details for candidates wishing to apply for
2. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION
The APRICOT 2002 Fellowship Committee will select fellows according to
the following criteria. The criteria are designed to provide support to
those applicants with most potential to benefit, as well as fairness and
transparency in the selection process.
Candidates are sought from developing countries, who play any of the
following roles in their countries:
– Network builders (designers, engineers and support staff)
– Internet educators (teachers and lecturers at secondary and tertiary
– Top decision makers in Government, education, NGO and commercial
While it is expected that the majority of candidates will be selected
from the Asia Pacific region, candidates from other regions may also
The Fellowship Committee will favour candidates who demonstrate their
potential to benefit by participation in APRICOT 2002. It is expected
that successful candidates will contribute to APRICOT in future as
participants, presenters or trainers; and also by nominating suitable
applicants for the Fellowship Programme in future years.
3. BENEFITS FOR FELLOWS
The Programme will provide an allowance to cover reasonable
accommodation and meal expenses during the event, and will waive all
conference, tutorial and workshop registration fees for the selected
Airfares and other expenses are not covered by the programme.
4. FELLOWSHIP COMMITTEE
The Fellowship Committee includes the follow individuals, all of whom
have had a long association with APRICOT and with Internet development
in the region:
– Dr. Byung-Kyu Kim, Asia Pacific Outreach, Korea (chair)
– Dr. Pichet Durongkaweroj, Thailand
– Dr. Kanchana Kanchanasut, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
– Mr. Vijay Parmar, APDIP, Malaysia
– Dr. Kwan Siththani, Thailand
– Mr. Paul Wilson, APNIC, Australia
– Prof. Xing Li, APNG, China
The role of the Committee is:
– to develop the APRICOT2002 Fellowship Programme;
– to attract funders and sponsors to support the programme;
– to determine the number of fellows and the funding allocations to each;
– to select the successful candidates;
– to prepare for the next Fellowship Programme.
Date: 30 May 2001
Location: Sheraton Stockholm Hotel & Tower
Room: Drottningholmsalen A
Meeting Room Information:
World Wide Alliance of Top Level Domain-names
Best Practice & Delegation/Re-delegation of ccTLD
Best Practice Guidelines for ccTLD Managers
Version 4.0 – 10 March 2001
Statement of Purpose
ccTLD Managers recognize the desirability of Conforming to Best Practice and undertake to work towards compliance.
The Domain Name System structure contains a hierarchy of names. The root, or highest level, of the system is unnamed. Top Level Domains (TLDs) are divided into classes, ccTLDs and gTLDs, based on rules that have evolved over time. ccTLDs – country code Top Level Domains – are associated with countries and territories. gTLDs are (with some exceptions) generic and global in nature.
To date, ccTLDs have been created on the basis of countries and territories appearing on the ISO-3166 list, on the basis that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should and should not be on that list. Historically, the IANA maintain a list of the ccTLD managers.
A list of current TLD assignments and names of the ccTLD Managers may be accessed at http://www.iana.org/cctld/cctld.htm
1. Objectives of this document
To describe current and desirable best practice guidelines for cctld Registry Managers.
ccTLD – A country code top level domain in the top level of the global domain name system, assigned according to the two-letter codes in the ISO 3166 standard codes for the representation of names of countries or territories.
ccTLD Registry – The entity which records names as domain names in a register of domain names for the country-code top level domain name, according to policies and rules, and following procedures, established with the Local Internet Community (see below).
ccTLD Manager – A company, organisation or individual managing a ccTLD Registry.
Registrant – A company, organisation or individual for whom a name has been registered as a domain name in the ccTLD domain name register.
ICANN – Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.
IANA – Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
Local Internet Community – The Internet industry and users and the government and authorities of the state or territory with which the ccTLD is associated. The definition of the Local Internet Community may vary from one country/territory to another, and is essentially a matter for the community in a given country/territory to decide. The definition of the Local Internet Community should be documented, available for public inspection, and transparent to the local community.
Global Internet Community – The Internet industry and users worldwide, including governmental and supra-national organizations.
3. Best Practice
3.1 Status and Responsibilities
The primary duty of the ccTLD Manager is one of Public Service and to manage and operate the ccTLD Registry in the interest of and in consultation with the Local Internet Community, mindful of the interests of the Global Internet Community.
A ccTLD Manager is a trustee for the delegated domain, and has a duty to serve the community it represents as well as the global Internet community. Concerns about “rights” and “ownership” of top-level domains are inappropriate. It is appropriate to be concerned about “responsibilities” and “service” to the community. The ccTLD manager should be judged on his or her performance, and the extent to which it satisfies the needs of the Local and Global Internet communities.
ccTLD Managers are entrusted with the management of the TLD Registry. The ccTLD Manager and Registry are not responsible for any alleged or actual violations of intellectual property or other rights, merely as a consequence of listing a domain name in the ccTLD register.
In the absence of pre-existing arrangements with the Local Internet Community and consistent with the requirement to best serve the interests of the Local Internet Community, the ccTLD Manager should be resident in the territory of the ccTLD or, if the Manager is a corporation, the ccTLD Manager should be incorporated there.
The ccTLD Manager should recognize that a ccTLD Registry is a special function and, resulting from this, has a special position which should not be abused.
3.2 Registration Policies
3.2.1 The ccTLD Manager must register domain names in an efficient and timely manner following policies rules and procedures that have been established and published in a transparent manner, in consultation with the Local Internet Community.
3.2.2 ccTLD registries should ensure standard agreements exist for Registrants setting out the expectations and obligations of each party. Conditions of registration should obligate registrants to supply accurate and complete contact information at the time of registration, and to keep it current.
3.2.3 Registries should ensure the provision of a means for updating registrants details in the registry database.
3.2.4 ccTLD registries should collect, store or otherwise process the necessary information in such a manner to ensure that the Registrant can be authenticated.
3.2.5 ccTLD Managers should be equitable and fair to all eligible registrants that request domain names. Policies and procedures may vary from country to country due to local customs, cultural values, local policies and objectives, law and regulations. The definition should be documented, available for public inspection, and transparent to the Local Internet Community. The policies and procedures for the use of the domain should be made available for public inspection.
3.2.6 ccTLD Managers should have a consistently applied policy on privacy, and that policy should be published.
3.2.7 ccTLD Managers should define and publish their domain name dispute resolution policies and procedures, in consultation with the Local Internet Community. Mechanisms should be established by the ccTLD Manager to handle fairly and independently any such disputes arising between registrants, or other parties, and the ccTLD Manager. Making judgments in relation to disputes between third parties and domain name registrants is outside the scope of the ccTLD Manager’s duties.
3.3 Operational Requirements
3.3.1 ccTLD Managers are responsible for the operation or supervision of DNS service for the ccTLD, including management of registry database, providing access to update the registration details, generation of the zone files and management of nameservers.
3.3.2 Technical Operations
184.108.40.206 Data Security: ccTLD Managers should ensure that all Registry data is reasonably secured against damage or loss using as resources permit the most appropriate technology.
220.127.116.11 The ccTLD domain name service should be continuously available. At a minimum, the ccTLD manager must provide nameservers with 24-hour Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity to the Internet, 365 days per year, and operate the database with accuracy, robustness, resilience, and reliability. (See RFC 1591 and ICP-1).
18.104.22.168 ccTLD Managers should keep the IANA advised of any changes to the information concerning the domain that is maintained in the IANA’s register database, and should respond to requests for information from the IANA relating to the status and technical operations of the domain in a timely manner.
22.214.171.124 ccTLD Managers must protect the integrity of its zone(s) and must make arrangements to assure continued operation of the registry, and continued resolution of names within the ccTLD’s zone(s).
126.96.36.199 Subcontracting of Operations. Unless otherwise agreed with the Local Internet Community, a ccTLD Manager may contract out any or all of the operations and administration of a ccTLD Registry, provided that ccTLD Manager contractually obliges the sub-contractor to comply with the requirements of this and any other documents that may be agreed from time to time.
3.4 Financial Matters
3.4.1 ccTLD registries shall not be limited as to business model.
3.4.2 ccTLD Managers should price its services at such levels as to not unreasonably limit the registration of domain names.
3.4.3 Governing Law
188.8.131.52 ccTLD Managers should operate under the law of the country or territory where they are located.
184.108.40.206 The law under which the contract between the Registry and the Registrant operates will be stated in that contract and, unless otherwise agreed, will be the law of the country or territorial authority in 220.127.116.11.
18.104.22.168 ccTLD managers, consistent with its financial capabilities, should participate in appropriate local and international fora on Internet technology, policy, and governance.